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A.S. Morris - Measurement and Instrumentation Principles

Measurement and Instrumentation, 2nd Edition
Theory and Application
by Alan Morris Reza Langari

eBook ISBN: 9780128011324
Paperback ISBN: 9780128008843
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 7th September 2015
Page Count: 726

Description

Measurement and Instrumentation: Theory and Application, Second Edition, introduces undergraduate engineering students to measurement principles and the range of sensors and instruments used for measuring physical variables.

This updated edition provides new coverage of the latest developments in measurement technologies, including smart sensors, intelligent instruments, microsensors, digital recorders, displays, and interfaces, also featuring chapters on data acquisition and signal processing with LabVIEW from Dr. Reza Langari.

Written clearly and comprehensively, this text provides students and recently graduated engineers with the knowledge and tools to design and build measurement systems for virtually any engineering application.

Key Features

Provides early coverage of measurement system design to facilitate a better framework for understanding the importance of studying measurement and instrumentation
Covers the latest developments in measurement technologies, including smart sensors, intelligent instruments, microsensors, digital recorders, displays, and interfaces
Includes significant material on data acquisition and signal processing with LabVIEW
Extensive coverage of measurement uncertainty aids students’ ability to determine the accuracy of instruments and measurement systems

Readership

Junior and senior undergraduate engineering students taking measurement and instrumentation courses primarily in mechanical and aerospace engineering departments

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgement
Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Measurement Systems
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Measurement Units
1.3. Measurement System Design
1.4. Measurement System Applications
1.5. Summary
1.6. Problems
Chapter 2. Instrument Types and Performance Characteristics
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Review of Instrument Types
2.3. Static Characteristics of Instruments
2.4. Dynamic Characteristics of Instruments
2.5. Necessity for Calibration
2.6. Summary
2.7. Problems
Chapter 3. Measurement Uncertainty
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Sources of Systematic Error
3.3. Reduction of Systematic Errors
3.4. Quantification of Systematic Errors
3.5. Sources and Treatment of Random Errors
3.6. Induced Measurement Noise
3.7. Techniques for Reducing Induced Measurement Noise
3.8. Summary
3.9. Problems
Chapter 4. Statistical Analysis of Measurements Subject to Random Errors
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Mean and Median Values
4.3. Standard Deviation and Variance
4.4. Graphical Data Analysis Techniques—Frequency Distributions
4.5. Gaussian (Normal) Distribution
4.6. Standard Gaussian Tables (z-Distribution)
4.7. Standard Error of the Mean
4.8. Estimation of Random Error in a Single Measurement
4.9. Distribution of Manufacturing Tolerances
4.10. Chi-Squared (χ2) Distribution
4.11. Goodness of Fit to a Gaussian Distribution
4.12. Rogue Data Points (Data Outliers)
4.13. Student t-Distribution
4.14. Aggregation of Measurement System Errors
4.15. Summary
4.16. Problems
Chapter 5. Calibration of Measuring Sensors and Instruments
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Principles of Calibration
5.3. Control of Calibration Environment
5.4. Calibration Chain and Traceability
5.5. Calibration Records
5.6. Summary
5.7. Problems
Chapter 6. Data Acquisition and Signal Processing
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Preliminary Definitions
6.3. Sensor Signal Characteristics
6.4. Aliasing
6.5. Quantization
6.6. Analog Signal Processing
6.7. Passive Filters
6.8. Active Filters Using Op-Amps
6.9. Signal Amplification
6.10. Digital Filters
6.11. Summary
6.12. Exercises
6.13. Appendix
Chapter 7. Variable Conversion
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Bridge Circuits
7.3. Resistance Measurement
7.4. Inductance Measurement
7.5. Capacitance Measurement
7.6. Current Measurement
7.7. Frequency Measurement
7.8. Phase Measurement
7.9. Summary
7.10. Problems
Chapter 8. Measurement Signal Transmission
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Electrical Transmission
8.3. Pneumatic Transmission
8.4. Fiber Optic Transmission
8.5. Optical Wireless Telemetry (Open Air Path Transmission)
8.6. Radio Telemetry (Radio Wireless Transmission)
8.7. Digital Transmission Protocols
8.8. Summary
8.9. Problems
Chapter 9. Display, Recording, and Presentation of Measurement Data
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Display of Measurement Signals
9.3. Recording of Measurement Data
9.4. Presentation of Data
9.5. Summary
9.6. Problems
Chapter 10. Intelligent Devices
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Principles of Digital Computation
10.3. Intelligent Devices
10.4. Communication with Intelligent Devices
10.5. Summary
10.6. Problems
Chapter 11. Measurement Reliability and Safety Systems
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Reliability
11.3. Safety Systems
11.4. Summary
11.5. Problems
Chapter 12. Data Acquisition with LabVIEW
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Computer-Based DAQ
12.3. Acquisition of Data
12.4. National Instruments LabVIEW
12.5. Introduction to Graphical Programming in LabVIEW
12.6. Elements of the Tools Palette
12.7. Logic Operations in LabVIEW
12.8. Loops in LabVIEW
12.9. Case Structure in LabVIEW
12.10. DAQ Using LabVIEW
12.11. LabVIEW Implementation of Digital Filters
12.12. Summary
12.13. Exercises
Chapter 13. Sensor Technologies
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Capacitive Sensors
13.3. Resistive Sensors
13.4. Magnetic Sensors
13.5. Hall Effect Sensors
13.6. Piezoelectric Transducers
13.7. Strain Gauges
13.8. Piezoresistive Sensors
13.9. Optical Sensors
13.10. Ultrasonic Transducers
13.11. Nuclear Sensors
13.12. Microsensors (MEMS Sensors)
13.13. Nanosensors (NEMS Sensors)
13.14. Summary
13.15. Problems
Chapter 14. Temperature Measurement
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Thermoelectric Effect Sensors (Thermocouples)
14.3. Varying Resistance Devices
14.4. Semiconductor Devices
14.5. Radiation Thermometers
14.6. Thermography (Thermal Imaging)
14.7. Thermal Expansion Methods
14.8. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors
14.9. Color Indicators
14.10. Change of State of Materials
14.11. Intelligent Temperature-Measuring Instruments
14.12. MEMS Temperature Sensors
14.13. Choice between Temperature Transducers
14.14. Calibration of Temperature Transducers
14.15. Summary
14.16. Problems
Chapter 15. Pressure Measurement
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Diaphragms
15.3. Capacitive Pressure Sensor
15.4. Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors
15.5. Bellows
15.6. Bourdon Tube
15.7. Manometers
15.8. Resonant Wire Devices
15.9. Electronic Pressure Gauges
15.10. MEMS Pressure Sensors
15.11. Special Measurement Devices for Low Pressures (Vacuum Pressures)
15.12. High-Pressure Measurement (Greater than 7000 bar)
15.13. Intelligent Pressure Transducers
15.14. Differential Pressure-Measuring Devices
15.15. Selection of Pressure Sensors
15.16. Calibration of Pressure Sensors
15.17. Summary
15.18. Problems
Chapter 16. Flow Measurement
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Mass Flow Rate
16.3. Volume Flow Rate
16.4. Intelligent Flowmeters
16.5. Choice between Flowmeters for Particular Applications
16.6. Calibration of Flowmeters
16.7. Summary
16.8. Problems
Chapter 17. Level Measurement
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Dipsticks
17.3. Float Systems
17.4. Pressure-Measuring Devices (Hydrostatic Systems)
17.5. Capacitive Devices
17.6. Ultrasonic Level Gauge
17.7. Radar (Microwave) Sensors
17.8. Nucleonic (or Radiometric) Sensors
17.9. Vibrating Level Sensor
17.10. Intelligent Level-Measuring Instruments
17.11. Choice between Different Level Sensors
17.12. Calibration of Level Sensors
17.13. Summary
17.14. Problems
Chapter 18. Mass, Force, and Torque Measurement
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Mass (Weight) Measurement
18.3. Force Measurement
18.4. Torque Measurement
18.5. Calibration of Mass-, Force-, and Torque-Measuring Sensors
18.6. Summary
18.7. Problems
Chapter 19. Translational Motion, Vibration, and Shock Measurement
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Displacement
19.3. Velocity
19.4. Acceleration
19.5. Vibration
19.6. Shock
19.7. Summary
19.8. Problems
Chapter 20. Rotational Motion Transducers
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Rotational Displacement
20.3. Rotational Velocity
20.4. Rotational Acceleration
20.5. Summary
20.6. Problems
Chapter 21. Summary of Other Measurements
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Dimension Measurement
21.3. Angle Measurement
21.4. Surface Flatness Measurement
21.5. Volume Measurement
21.6. Viscosity Measurement
21.7. Moisture Measurement
21.8. Sound Measurement
21.9. pH Measurement
21.10. Gas Sensing and Analysis
21.11. Summary
21.12. Problems
Appendix 1. Imperial—Metric—SI Conversion Tables
Appendix 2. Thevenin`s Theorem
Appendix 3. Thermocouple Tables
Appendix 4. Using Mathematical Tables
Index